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1 New Concepts in Science*


Eugene Levich
Апрель 2015

Journal “Scientific Israel- Technological Advantages"Vol.17, no. 1, 20155


Eugene Levich

Jerusalem,New York


Открыть статью: lastpaperofLevichaspublishedpdf 



ABSTRACT In 2014 I published a paper that "Theory of Order in Cosmos" ("Scientific Israel-Technological Advantages”, vol. 16, no.1, 2014 under the rubric "New Concepts in Science"). Previously I had published in the same journal two letters: "Theory of order" Part 1 and Part 2". This paper is the follow up and elucidation of the theory submitted in the preceding papers. The papers were written, I willingly admit it, with my mind in a state of mild confusion. Despite the valiant efforts of my editor, to whom I am greatly indebted, the confusion contributed to a number of misprints, spelling and grammatical mistakes and a couple of misprints in the Table of numerical results in (E. Levich, 2014). the papers. In the end of this paper I placed the there is a new Table of results with the misprints weeded out, hopefully. My confusion had been rooted in the seemingly inescapable conclusions results of the published theory. Some of them are embarrassingly different from certain cosmological beliefs advanced by some contemporary iconic cosmologists and physicists. I was also confused by the generality of applications of the submitted theory. The theory follows closely the contemporary groundbreaking astronomical data of the last two decades since 1998. That year two independent groups of astronomers in the USA and Australia discovered that our Cosmos is dominated by an invisible matter. This invisible matter is called dark energy. Two decades decases earlier astronomers had discovered that all visible lumps of matter in Cosmos, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, filaments of clusters and so forth are dominated by another kind of invisible matter called dark matter, not to be confused with dark energy. What is left of normal visible matter in Cosmos is the mere 4.9%. All the rest 95.1% of matter in Cosmos are the invisible dark energy with 68.3% contribution and dark matter with 26.3& contribution. It is irrefutably proved by astronomers that dark energy accelerates the Cosmos space expansion and thus acts as a sort of antigravitational, repulsive force, while dark matter is contracting gravitationally. The above extraordinary findings are fashionable to consider as the last "mysteries" of science. It is a convenient position for scientists who for several decades have been heralding their successes of being on the verge of creating a "theory of everything". The discovery of two kinds of invisible matter totally dominating Cosmos invisible matter with no clue whatsoever to their nature dealt a death blow to this fantasy. Indeed, However, natural sciences are not a set of beliefs. Science must explain firmly established observational and experimental facts and predict the new ones. Although, recognized by a few leading physicists and cosmologists as fairly shattering I know of no serious attempts to reconsider from the beginning the prevailing approach to these phenomena. On the contrary, as far as I can judge the attempts to understand invisible matter have been focused on finding ways how invisible matter, primarily dark matter, can be explained as some peculiar manifestation of "normal matter". Much more constructive approach to dark energy has been voiced by Sir. Roger Penrose, at least as regards dark energy. His view that I have gathered from the lectures is that dark energy is just the Einstein cosmological constant introduced by Einstein and later refuted by him in his gravitation equations-the modified EGE. As far as the nature of cosmological constant this is just a given, fundamental property of Cosmos, say as Newton gravitational constant, or the speed of light. My view is not far to this position, but I believe that much more can be done to elucidate the nature of dark energy and dark matter. This was done in (E. Levich, 2014) and the present work is the continuation with some new results, corrections and more philosophical discussion, while the basic calculations are all in the cited paper. It is argued that the The observation of dominanating dominant invisible matter inexorably guides us points at the existence of to the primordial, primeval source of all order in our Cosmos, Journal “Scientific Israel- Technological Advantages" Vol.17, no. 1, 2015 6 galaxies and stars, our solar system and Earth; the source of life and of conscious mind of Man on Earth; the pinnacle of order in Cosmos. This primeval source is the timeless continuum of dark energy-the DEC- into which our Cosmos is embedded as a subdomain. Dark energy permeates the global 4D space/time of (4dimensional)-4D Cosmos through all and every 4D space/time point of Cosmos from the birth in Big Bang 13 billion years ago until death in ten quadrillion quadrillions years from now. It is not that dark energy and dark matter are somehow the modalities of visible matter. On the contrary, the coherent visible matter, from microworld to galaxies is formed by dark energy. It is not that dark matter is some peculiar manifestation of visible matter. Dark matter is just chaos disposed by any and all visible matte entities to remain and sustain their coherence. I call the proposed theory (E. Levich, 2014) the "kinetic theory of order in Cosmos", or KTOC. The KTOC starts from cosmogony, the birth of Cosmos that is briefly as follows. Cosmos is born within the timeless, dark energy continuum, the DEC as a supremely coherent light of Big Bang. The perfectly coherent light of Big Bang is emitted within the timeless dark energy continuum by what is known theoretically as the flux of virtual Planck particle. The Planck particle has been an object of long existing curiosity of physicists since the advent of quantum field theories. But the Planck particle has neither been observed nor its existence proven and hence may be in doubt. Nevertheless, the birth of virtual Planck particles does not violate any of the classical laws of physics1 . These days directly and indirectly the Planck particle or Planck string is used in fashionable string/brane theories as the most elementary unit of matter and/or a minimal possible corpuscle of space/time. It also obviously appears in the acclaimed theory of quantum evaporation of black hole-BH- developed by renowned Jacob Bekenstein and Stephen Hawking in the late 20th century. The Planck particle isotropically emits a perfectly coherent light having a tremendous momentum/energy triggering the dark continuum expansion and thus the first isotropic and perfectly coherent 3D space, but not time is created. This is the Big Bang event. Although triggering the space expansion the light speed is limited while the speed of empty space expansion by inertia is not. There is no time concept yet, the stable physical matter has not been borne yet, except of light and light by itself is not enough for measuring of time by virtue of ESR. This timeless space expansion within the dark continuum can be called the inflation stage. This name associates with the inflation hypothesis that is widely discussed by cosmologists. However, the KTOC inflation has a totally different nature from the inflation theory of Alan Guth and Andrei Linde. The KTOC inflation is caused by the perfect coherence of Big Bang2 . The initial "temperature" of space is extremely high. It is not the thermodynamical temperature since the Planck particle as a tiny black body emitting perfectly coherent radiation. Perfectly coherent radiation is the quantum equilibrium of perfect order. The quantum equilibrium is the opposite of classical physics equilibrium, which by definition and meaning is the state of maximal possible chaos. In astrophysics the sources of highly non-equilibrium radiation in the primarily low frequency part of the spectrum, e.g., of quasars, pulsars, radio-galaxies are characterized by the so-called brightness temperature. Their radiation is very far from the classical equilibrium of chaos and closer to the coherent radiation of quantum equilibrium. But as there is no time yet there is no chaos, only order. Therefore the Big Bang event could not be chaotic. The KTOC asserts that the ultimate coherence of 1 If a virtual Planck particle pops out from the DEC in the usual terminology as a fluctuation from the quantum "vacuum" it lives extremely short time, the shortest possible and returns back into the DEC. However, it does not mean that it cannot pop out again and again flickering with the extremely high, maximal possible Planck frequency. This virtual flickering into our 4D space/time is equivalent to the momentum/energy flux of the virtual Planck particles. For an observer this flux would be impossible to distinguish from the permanent presence of matter in the volume through which this flux passes, since the frequency at which the observer is functioning is much lower than the Planck frequency. The observer can reach this frequency only at the black hole quantum "singularity", but then he will be just a part of the DEC because this singularity is the entry into the DEC. For those not familiar with the terminology used in this footnote it may be necessary to read through the text to understand it rather simple, but slightly twisted logic of assuming the contrary and proving that it is contradictory; that is if something is possible the consequences would be contradictory and hence this something is not possible. 2 The perfect coherence of Big Bang is the cornerstone of the "Cycles of Time" infinitely sequential Cosmos theory of Sir. Roger Penrose, e.g., (R. Penrose "Cycles of Time", 2010). Journal “Scientific Israel- Technological Advantages" Vol.17, no. 1, 2015 7 the Big Bang radiation is the state of quantum equilibrium with all photons having one Planck frequency. This is the state similar to Bose-Einstein condensation of photons-the BEC of photons (Ya. Zeldovich, E. Levich, 1970, R.A. Sunyaev, 2013, Klaers J., Schmitt J., Vewinger F.,& Martin Weitz)., 2010)., , except that the classical BEC frequency is zero, rather than the extremely high Planck frequency. But the latter is the only energy state that had existed at the Big Bang event as should become clear in what follows (E. Levich, 2014). Thus the KTOC concludes that the Big Bang ultimately coherent radiation is a state similar to the BEC of photons, but with the highest possible brightness temperature in Cosmos. As Cosmos space expands the initially perfectly coherent radiation thermalizes via interaction with the virtual electron/positron pairs popping out of the coherent radiation and immediately annihilated back into the radiation. But thermalization is abrupt like a break of symmetry at the birth of physical four dimensional-4D space/time. The very fact of light emission by the Planck particle as a tiny black body asserts that the birth of Cosmos is a quantum event. Strangely a quantum event with the Planck particle may occur even if the observable time concept does not exist yet. The life time of the Planck particle is the shortest that ever has been and will be in Cosmos and hence impossible to observe. Also strangely such event can be formally described as a solution of the classical Einstein gravitation equations-the EGE (Roger Penrose, 2010)3 . As a descendant of the primordial coherent the thermal radiation has a normal temperature sufficiently cold for the first stable, not virtual bricks of matter other than photons of light to be born from the dark continuum4 . This happens when the Cosmos space volume reaches 24 3 10 cm and the first building bricks of would be macroscopic matter pop out from the DEC. These are protons and/or antiprotons, it is immaterial how we call them, with a slight excess of one over another. However, if even two, say protons do not annihilate with antiprotons they appear in Cosmos as stable particles. Since now space contains protons and light the ESR requirements of the Einstein special relativity theory-for the time measuring are met. This latter is the necessary, but not necessarily sufficient condition for the time concept to exist. But first it is necessary that light catches up with the space expansion that is many orders of magnitude faster than the speed of light. In the KTOC it occurs at the phase transition time ~310-3 sec when the expanding 3D space has the volume of 24 3 10 cm . This is the start of physical time, the irreversible time concept in conjunction with and inseparable from the second law of thermodynamics and the subsequent distinction between order and chaos with entropy as quantitative measure of chaos. Entropy S is rigorously defined in the science of statistical thermodynamics. At the beginning of time the space is still flat, since the curvature would have meant chaos and chaos does not exist prior to the physical, sensual time concept. On the other hand since the first protons are born the coherent radiation of Big Bang suddenly becomes thermal equilibrium radiation with normal, not brightness temperature appropriate for the birth of stable protons. This is the birth of 4D space/time Cosmos dominated by radiation.

Полный текст статьи Евгения Левича, опубликованной в журнале Journal “Scientific Israel- Technological Advantages" Vol.17, no. 1, 2015

Открыть: lastpaperofLevichaspublishedpdf 




ОБ АВТОРЕ:   Eugene Levich

New York and Jerusalem

October o1, 2013

Eugene Levich has worked in various fields of science and technology. He is credited with co-discovery with Ya. B. Zeldovich of a fundamental phenomenon of Bose condensation of radiation in 1969. The importance of this phenomenon for cosmology and astrophysics has been consistently proven in outstanding works of Rashid Sunyaev and his astrophysical groups in Moscow and at the Planck Institute. Few years ago the phenomenon was reproduced for the first time in laboratory conditions by a German experimental group in Bonn that coined the name   "New State of Light" for the phenomenon in their Nature publication.

E. Levich pioneered a new area of theoretical physics that can be named "the coherent kinetics of Bose condensation". He understood the relation between the coherent kinetics of Bose condensation and superfluid turbulence.

E. Levich developed a new theory of turbulence in fluids based on the concept that topological helical Beltrami structures are the prime attribute of turbulence while chaos is the mere entropy disposal by these structures. This discovery sheds entirely new light on coherence in atmospheric and oceanic phenomena, e,g., Gulfstream. There is a growing number of available experimental, numerical and meteorological observations giving support to the new vision of turbulence as complex order rather than ultimate chaos. The newly coined terminology in meteorology is "Helical Cyclogenesis".

In recent years Eugene Levich has been primarily interested in general principles behind formation of Order in Cosmos. The  developed concept is that all and every form of Order in Cosmos, from large scale cosmic structures and down the scale to biological life and composition of fermions have the same imperative principle behind their formation, the twisted by 180 degrees and yet unavoidable consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. This paper is the first in the sequence of works developing theory of Order in Cosmos. The mechanisms ensuring the supremacy of the second law are different and the equations of physics are. But the equations are just the formats of these mechanisms serving the supremacy of the second law and not the reasons of Order.

The above assertions will be deductively developed and proved mathematically in the future publications. This will be done while staying firmly in the framework of falsified science, basic, generally available experimental and astronomical data and affordable mathematical tools. 

Eugene Levich is also a coauthor of bio/medical investigation published in 20011 claiming an absolutely novel, not related to hemoglobin, osmotic mechanism of oxygen delivery to damaged cells of human/mammalian bodies. The theory is currently being extensively verified on live animals in Israeli Navy Research Institute in Haifa.



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