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1 New Concepts in Science*


Бизнесмен и меценат Юрий Мильнер и знаменитый астрофизик Стивен Хокинг объявили о старте проекта поиска внеземных цивилизаций
Юлия Латынина

20 июля, в тот день, когда американский астронавт Нейл Армстронг впервые коснулся поверхности Луны, российско-американский миллиардер Юрий Мильнер, партнер Алишера Усманова и совладелец mail.ru, вместе со Стивом Хокингом, единственным астрофизиком, чье имя хорошо известно широкой публике («Я продал больше книг об астрофизике, чем Мадонна о сексе», — шутил Хокинг), объявили о том, что потратят 100 млн долларов в течение ближайших 10 лет на поиск внеземных цивилизаций

Фотографии Марса, напоминающие картины, сделанные художником-сюрреалистом

Марс, который также называют Красной планетой, на этих фотографиях может вас удивить своими отнюдь не красными пейзажами.Некоторые снимки выглядят как удивительной красоты картины кисти знаменитого художника. Смотрите самые красивые фотографии Марса.

Четырехмерная пирамида химических элементов и атомов
Юрий Магаршак

Презентация представленная на конфереции НОВЫЕ КОНЦЕПЦИИ В ФИЗИКЕ. Москва, 2007 год

Ученые: Земля вступает в новую фазу вымирания
BBC

Живой мир на Земле вступил в новую фазу вымирания, и среди первых жертв могут оказаться сами люди. К такому выводу пришли исследователи из трех ведущих университетов США: Стэнфорда, Принстона и Беркли.

Letter to professor Eugene Levich from professor Vladimir Tsifrinovich
prof. Vladimir Tsifrinovich

Dear Prof. Magarshak, On your website I have seen a cosmological article of Prof. Levich, where he reports computation of a set of quantities presented in the Table. I did not find references on the articles, describing the method of computation. If you have those references, could you, please, send them to me? Thank you, Vladimir Tsifrinovich, prof. New York University, Department of Applied Physics

List of Unsolved Scientific Problems with Large Monetary Prizes
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On commuting operators related to asymptotic symmetries in the atomic theory
Fedor Bogomolov, Yuri Magarshak

There are many situations in physics where two types of symmetries coexist asymptotically without interference. Let us bring up two examples of such a phenomena in the theory of atom. As it was shown in [1], there is a symmetry between the order of completion of the electronic levels of different atoms [2] and the spectra of the hydrogen atom [3,4]. Let us consider the multielectron problem of the electronic shells and subshells structure as a function of atomic number. If one orders the electronic configuration in the coordinates (n , l), e.g. in the same coordinates in which were ordered the energy levels of the hydrogen atom (relations 1), the picture obtained does not reveal any structure or regularity (Figure 1). However, if the subshells are ordered differently (Figure 2), one gets clear-cut triangular structure

Will Computers Redefine the Roots of Math?
By: Kevin Hartnett May 19, 2015

When a legendary mathematician found a mistake in his own work, he embarked on a computer-aided quest to eliminate human error. To succeed, he has to rewrite the century-old rules underlying all of mathematics.

Formation of the Moon and the Earth from a Common Supraplanetary Gas–Dust Cloud
Erik M. Galimov

A hypothesis is proposed on the formation of the Earth and the Moon from a largescale gas–dust cloud, the size of which is limited by the Hill radius, i.e., approximately one million kilometers. The compression of the supraplanetary gas–dust cloud resulted in an adiabatic temperature increase in its interior parts and evaporation of volatiles, including iron, from the surface of particles. At a certain stage, within 50–70 Ma after solar system formation, the supraplanetary gas–dust disk was fragmented, the Moon was separated, and the Earth embryo was formed. The remaining part of the gas–dust material was accreted mainly to the Earth. During this process, the gas dominated by primordial hydrogen was squeezed out of the disk. Vapor was removed together with hydrogen from the interparticle space. The hydrodynamic lifting resulted in the loss of volatiles, including Rb, Xe, and Pb, which is reflected in the Rb–Sr, Xe–I–Pu, and U–Pb isotopic systems. The gas–dust accretion was accomplished within 110–130 Ma (most likely, ~120 Ma) after the beginning of solar system formation. Since then, the hydrodynamic lifting and volatile loss have ceased, and the history of the Earth as a condensed body has started.

Как волки меняют реки
Sustainable man

Когда в 1995 году четырнадцать волков были выпущены на волю в Йеллоустонском Национальном Парке, ученые и не подозревали, что это кардинально изменит всю экосистему парка. Настолько, что даже реки изменят русло!

ORDER IN COSMOS AND MAN ON EARTH
Eugene Levich

In 2014 I published a paper that "Theory of Order in Cosmos" ("Scientific Israel-Technological Advantages”, vol. 16, no.1, 2014 under the rubric "New Concepts in Science"). Previously I had published in the same journal two letters: "Theory of order" Part 1 and Part 2". This paper is the follow up and elucidation of the theory submitted in the preceding papers. The papers were written, I willingly admit it, with my mind in a state of mild confusion. Despite the valiant efforts of my editor, to whom I am greatly indebted, the confusion contributed to a number of misprints, spelling and grammatical mistakes and a couple of misprints in the Table of numerical results in (E. Levich, 2014). the papers. In the end of this paper I placed the there is a new Table of results with the misprints weeded out, hopefully. My confusion had been rooted in the seemingly inescapable conclusions results of the published theory. Some of them are embarrassingly different from certain cosmological beliefs advanced by some contemporary iconic cosmologists and physicists. I was also confused by the generality of applications of the submitted theory. The theory follows closely the contemporary groundbreaking astronomical data of the last two decades since 1998. That year two independent groups of astronomers in the USA and Australia discovered that our Cosmos is dominated by an invisible matter. This invisible matter is called dark energy. Two decades decases earlier astronomers had discovered that all visible lumps of matter in Cosmos, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, filaments of clusters and so forth are dominated by another kind of invisible matter called dark matter, not to be confused with dark energy. What is left of normal visible matter in Cosmos is the mere 4.9%. All the rest 95.1% of matter in Cosmos are the invisible dark energy with 68.3% contribution and dark matter with 26.3& contribution. It is irrefutably proved by astronomers that dark energy accelerates the Cosmos space expansion and thus acts as a sort of antigravitational, repulsive force, while dark matter is contracting gravitationally. The above extraordinary findings are fashionable to consider as the last "mysteries" of science. It is a convenient position for scientists who for several decades have been heralding their successes of being on the verge of creating a "theory of everything". The discovery of two kinds of invisible matter totally dominating Cosmos invisible matter with no clue whatsoever to their nature dealt a death blow to this fantasy. Indeed, However, natural sciences are not a set of beliefs.

Matter Structuring and Fundamental Constants of Physics
Edward Kapuscik1,2 1Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska str., 149/153, 90 236 Lodz, Poland

Abstract: It is generally believed that all fundamental constants are the same everywhere. The experience with the variable velocity of light suggests however that such a belief may not be justified. In spite of that the possibility that the Planck constant may be different at different scales and at different places of our Universe never was discussed. Since the constancy in space of the Planck constant cannot be checked in direct experiments the only way of proving its constancy orvariability is to consider theories which allow to vary this fundamental constant.The comparising of the derived results with the corresponding results of standardquantum mechanics solves then the problem. In the talk we present an approach to quantum mechanics which allows to vary the Planck constant. Due to troubles with exact solutions our results have approximate character only. The possible consequences for practical nanotechnology, for theories of many-electron atoms and for large scale structures of the Universe are discussed.

Suddenly, It Seems, Water Is Everywhere in Solar System
The New York Times Science By KENNETH CHANG MARCH 12, 2015

Oceans trapped under ice appear to be pretty common in the solar system and one of them, on a small moon of Saturn’s, appears to be quite hot.

Matter Structuring and Fundamental Constants of Physics
Edward Kapuscik Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz and Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, Krakow, Poland

Abstract: It is generally believed that all fundamental constants are the same everywhere. The experience with the variable velocity of light suggests however that such a belief may not be justified. In spite of that the possibility that the Planck constant may be different at different scales and at different places of our Universe never was discussed. Since the constancy in space of the Planck constant cannot be checked in direct experiments the only way of proving its constancy or variability is to consider theories which allow to vary this fundamental constant. The comparising of the derived results with the corresponding results of standard quantum mechanics solves then the problem. In the talk we present an approach to quantum mechanics which allows to vary the Planck constant. Due to troubles with exact solutions our results have approximate character only. The possible consequences for practical nanotechnology, for theories of many-electron atoms and for large scale structures of the Universe are discussed.

ВОСХОД ЗЕМЛИ. Фото тысячелетия
NASA/EARTHRISE: 45th anniversary

Первые в истории человечества снимки восхода Земли, снятые американским астронавтами, совершившими облет Луны и приземление на Луне в 1968 году

Чёрная дыра как способ существования
Максимиллиан Каммерер

Блестящий, написанный не только для физиков, обзор новых идей в космологии - области физики, которая в последние годы развивается особенно бурно

Life arose from minerals; then minerals arose from life
by Robert Hazen

Life arose from minerals; then minerals arose from life. The geosphere and biosphere have become complexly intertwined, with numerous feedback loops driving myriad critical natural processes in ways that are only now coming into focus. Photosynthetic microbes created new pathways for making novel minerals of uranium and copper; now, those new uranium and copper minerals provide environments for specialised kinds of microbes, which in turn are instrumental in forming new ore deposits. The rise of atmospheric oxygen was accompanied by a decline in CO2, leading to a decrease in the ocean’s acidity, which fostered the formation of limestone reefs, which provided stable new environments for more photosynthesis. The oxygen produced by photosynthetic microbes also led to the formation of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere, which blocked the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation, allowing life to populate shallow coastal areas.

Fasting triggers stem cell regeneration of damaged, old immune system
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA/ Chia Wei-Cheng of USC Davis School of Gerontology was first author of the study.

Results are first evidence of natural intervention triggering stem cell-dependent regeneration of organ or system

A New Physics Theory of Life.
By: Natalie Wolchover in Quanta Magazine

Why does life exist? Popular hypotheses credit a primordial soup, a bolt of lightning and a colossal stroke of luck. But if a provocative new theory is correct, luck may have little to do with it. Instead, according to the physicist proposing the idea, the origin and subsequent evolution of life follow from the fundamental laws of nature and “should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill.” From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. Jeremy England, a 31-year-old assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has derived a mathematical formula that he believes explains this capacity. The formula, based on established physics, indicates that when a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy (like the sun or chemical fuel) and surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. This could mean that under certain conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life. Cells from the moss Plagiomnium affine with visible chloroplasts, organelles that conduct photosynthesis by capturing sunlight. “You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant,” England said. England’s theory is meant to underlie, rather than replace, Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, which provides a powerful description of life at the level of genes and populations. “I am certainly not saying that Darwinian ideas are wrong,” he explained. “On the contrary, I am just saying that from the perspective of the physics, you might call Darwinian evolution a special case of a more general phenomenon.” His idea, detailed in a recent paper and further elaborated in a talk he is delivering at universities around the world, has sparked controversy among his colleagues, who see it as either tenuous or a potential breakthrough, or both. England has taken “a very brave and very important step,” said Alexander Grosberg, a professor of physics at New York University who has followed England’s work since its early stages. The “big hope” is that he has identified the underlying physical principle driving the origin and evolution of life, Grosberg said.

A new theory predicts a new breed of cosmic wanderers
Michael D. Lemonick

The idea that stars live in galaxies has been astronomy’s conventional wisdom since the 1920’s. It took a serious hit recently, though, when observers concluded that as many as half the stars in the universe might actually hover outside galaxies, flung off into the intergalactic void as collateral casualties when smaller galaxies merge to become large ones. But while that discovery was startling, a new prediction posted online takes the finding to a whole new level. A significant number of stars, say Avi Loeb and James Guillochon, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, should not just be floating through intergalactic space: they should be screaming across the cosmos at absurdly high speeds. “We calculate that there should be more than a trillion stars in the observable universe moving at velocities of more than a tenth the speed of light,” says Loeb. That’s about 67 million m.p.h. (108 million k/h). And about ten million of those stars, he says, are moving at least five times faster than that. High-velocity stars are not without precedent. Astronomers already knew of a handful of stars in the Milky Way that are moving at a million m.p.h (1.6 million k/h) or so, and which should eventually leave our galaxy. But this new class of speedsters—if they’re confirmed—would make those so-called hypervelocity stars look like garbage trucks lumbering along in the cosmic slow lane. There’s reason to hope that the findings are validated, beyond the mere wow factor of the work. Astronomers currently study the origin and development of the universe by trapping particles in telescopes and detectors—photons of light, mostly, and also, more recently, the ghostly particles called neutrinos, which bear information about the stars, galaxies and quasars in which they originated. Superfast stars would be another sort of “particles,” albeit huge, shining ones, which could tell astronomers plenty about the conditions they’ve encountered since they escaped their galactic homes. “They give us the opportunity to do cosmology in an entirely new way,” he says, “with massive objects moving at near lightspeed across the universe.” How they got moving so fast is the core of Loeb’s and Guillochon’s idea. Most galaxies harbor huge black holes in their cores, and when two galaxies merge to form one, those black holes end up circling each other in a tight do-si-do. Eventually, they too will merge into a single object, but as they approach each other, the complex gravitational interplay between them and the stars that orbit them exerts incredible force—and impart incredible speed. (Black hole interactions also give rise to hypervelocity stars within the Milky Way, but here there’s just a single black hole, and thus a lot less energy available.)

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