>> << >>

1 New Concepts in Science*


On commuting operators related to asymptotic symmetries in the atomic theory
Fedor Bogomolov, Yuri Magarshak

There are many situations in physics where two types of symmetries coexist asymptotically without interference. Let us bring up two examples of such a phenomena in the theory of atom. As it was shown in [1], there is a symmetry between the order of completion of the electronic levels of different atoms [2] and the spectra of the hydrogen atom [3,4]. Let us consider the multielectron problem of the electronic shells and subshells structure as a function of atomic number. If one orders the electronic configuration in the coordinates (n , l), e.g. in the same coordinates in which were ordered the energy levels of the hydrogen atom (relations 1), the picture obtained does not reveal any structure or regularity (Figure 1). However, if the subshells are ordered differently (Figure 2), one gets clear-cut triangular structure

Will Computers Redefine the Roots of Math?
By: Kevin Hartnett May 19, 2015

When a legendary mathematician found a mistake in his own work, he embarked on a computer-aided quest to eliminate human error. To succeed, he has to rewrite the century-old rules underlying all of mathematics.

Formation of the Moon and the Earth from a Common Supraplanetary GasDust Cloud
Erik M. Galimov

A hypothesis is proposed on the formation of the Earth and the Moon from a largescale gasdust cloud, the size of which is limited by the Hill radius, i.e., approximately one million kilometers. The compression of the supraplanetary gasdust cloud resulted in an adiabatic temperature increase in its interior parts and evaporation of volatiles, including iron, from the surface of particles. At a certain stage, within 5070 Ma after solar system formation, the supraplanetary gasdust disk was fragmented, the Moon was separated, and the Earth embryo was formed. The remaining part of the gasdust material was accreted mainly to the Earth. During this process, the gas dominated by primordial hydrogen was squeezed out of the disk. Vapor was removed together with hydrogen from the interparticle space. The hydrodynamic lifting resulted in the loss of volatiles, including Rb, Xe, and Pb, which is reflected in the RbSr, XeIPu, and UPb isotopic systems. The gasdust accretion was accomplished within 110130 Ma (most likely, ~120 Ma) after the beginning of solar system formation. Since then, the hydrodynamic lifting and volatile loss have ceased, and the history of the Earth as a condensed body has started.

Sustainable man

1995 , , . , !

ORDER IN COSMOS AND MAN ON EARTH
Eugene Levich

In 2014 I published a paper that "Theory of Order in Cosmos" ("Scientific Israel-Technological Advantages, vol. 16, no.1, 2014 under the rubric "New Concepts in Science"). Previously I had published in the same journal two letters: "Theory of order" Part 1 and Part 2". This paper is the follow up and elucidation of the theory submitted in the preceding papers. The papers were written, I willingly admit it, with my mind in a state of mild confusion. Despite the valiant efforts of my editor, to whom I am greatly indebted, the confusion contributed to a number of misprints, spelling and grammatical mistakes and a couple of misprints in the Table of numerical results in (E. Levich, 2014). the papers. In the end of this paper I placed the there is a new Table of results with the misprints weeded out, hopefully. My confusion had been rooted in the seemingly inescapable conclusions results of the published theory. Some of them are embarrassingly different from certain cosmological beliefs advanced by some contemporary iconic cosmologists and physicists. I was also confused by the generality of applications of the submitted theory. The theory follows closely the contemporary groundbreaking astronomical data of the last two decades since 1998. That year two independent groups of astronomers in the USA and Australia discovered that our Cosmos is dominated by an invisible matter. This invisible matter is called dark energy. Two decades decases earlier astronomers had discovered that all visible lumps of matter in Cosmos, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, filaments of clusters and so forth are dominated by another kind of invisible matter called dark matter, not to be confused with dark energy. What is left of normal visible matter in Cosmos is the mere 4.9%. All the rest 95.1% of matter in Cosmos are the invisible dark energy with 68.3% contribution and dark matter with 26.3& contribution. It is irrefutably proved by astronomers that dark energy accelerates the Cosmos space expansion and thus acts as a sort of antigravitational, repulsive force, while dark matter is contracting gravitationally. The above extraordinary findings are fashionable to consider as the last "mysteries" of science. It is a convenient position for scientists who for several decades have been heralding their successes of being on the verge of creating a "theory of everything". The discovery of two kinds of invisible matter totally dominating Cosmos invisible matter with no clue whatsoever to their nature dealt a death blow to this fantasy. Indeed, However, natural sciences are not a set of beliefs.

Matter Structuring and Fundamental Constants of Physics
Edward Kapuscik1,2 1Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska str., 149/153, 90 236 Lodz, Poland

Abstract: It is generally believed that all fundamental constants are the same everywhere. The experience with the variable velocity of light suggests however that such a belief may not be justified. In spite of that the possibility that the Planck constant may be different at different scales and at different places of our Universe never was discussed. Since the constancy in space of the Planck constant cannot be checked in direct experiments the only way of proving its constancy orvariability is to consider theories which allow to vary this fundamental constant.The comparising of the derived results with the corresponding results of standardquantum mechanics solves then the problem. In the talk we present an approach to quantum mechanics which allows to vary the Planck constant. Due to troubles with exact solutions our results have approximate character only. The possible consequences for practical nanotechnology, for theories of many-electron atoms and for large scale structures of the Universe are discussed.

Suddenly, It Seems, Water Is Everywhere in Solar System
The New York Times Science By KENNETH CHANG MARCH 12, 2015

Oceans trapped under ice appear to be pretty common in the solar system and one of them, on a small moon of Saturns, appears to be quite hot.

Matter Structuring and Fundamental Constants of Physics
Edward Kapuscik Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz and Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, Krakow, Poland

Abstract: It is generally believed that all fundamental constants are the same everywhere. The experience with the variable velocity of light suggests however that such a belief may not be justified. In spite of that the possibility that the Planck constant may be different at different scales and at different places of our Universe never was discussed. Since the constancy in space of the Planck constant cannot be checked in direct experiments the only way of proving its constancy or variability is to consider theories which allow to vary this fundamental constant. The comparising of the derived results with the corresponding results of standard quantum mechanics solves then the problem. In the talk we present an approach to quantum mechanics which allows to vary the Planck constant. Due to troubles with exact solutions our results have approximate character only. The possible consequences for practical nanotechnology, for theories of many-electron atoms and for large scale structures of the Universe are discussed.

.
NASA/EARTHRISE: 45th anniversary

, , 1968

׸

, , - ,

Life arose from minerals; then minerals arose from life
by Robert Hazen

Life arose from minerals; then minerals arose from life. The geosphere and biosphere have become complexly intertwined, with numerous feedback loops driving myriad critical natural processes in ways that are only now coming into focus. Photosynthetic microbes created new pathways for making novel minerals of uranium and copper; now, those new uranium and copper minerals provide environments for specialised kinds of microbes, which in turn are instrumental in forming new ore deposits. The rise of atmospheric oxygen was accompanied by a decline in CO2, leading to a decrease in the oceans acidity, which fostered the formation of limestone reefs, which provided stable new environments for more photosynthesis. The oxygen produced by photosynthetic microbes also led to the formation of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere, which blocked the Suns harmful ultraviolet radiation, allowing life to populate shallow coastal areas.

Fasting triggers stem cell regeneration of damaged, old immune system
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA/ Chia Wei-Cheng of USC Davis School of Gerontology was first author of the study.

Results are first evidence of natural intervention triggering stem cell-dependent regeneration of organ or system

A New Physics Theory of Life.
By: Natalie Wolchover in Quanta Magazine

Why does life exist? Popular hypotheses credit a primordial soup, a bolt of lightning and a colossal stroke of luck. But if a provocative new theory is correct, luck may have little to do with it. Instead, according to the physicist proposing the idea, the origin and subsequent evolution of life follow from the fundamental laws of nature and should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. Jeremy England, a 31-year-old assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has derived a mathematical formula that he believes explains this capacity. The formula, based on established physics, indicates that when a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy (like the sun or chemical fuel) and surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. This could mean that under certain conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life. Cells from the moss Plagiomnium affine with visible chloroplasts, organelles that conduct photosynthesis by capturing sunlight. You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant, England said. Englands theory is meant to underlie, rather than replace, Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection, which provides a powerful description of life at the level of genes and populations. I am certainly not saying that Darwinian ideas are wrong, he explained. On the contrary, I am just saying that from the perspective of the physics, you might call Darwinian evolution a special case of a more general phenomenon. His idea, detailed in a recent paper and further elaborated in a talk he is delivering at universities around the world, has sparked controversy among his colleagues, who see it as either tenuous or a potential breakthrough, or both. England has taken a very brave and very important step, said Alexander Grosberg, a professor of physics at New York University who has followed Englands work since its early stages. The big hope is that he has identified the underlying physical principle driving the origin and evolution of life, Grosberg said.

A new theory predicts a new breed of cosmic wanderers
Michael D. Lemonick

The idea that stars live in galaxies has been astronomys conventional wisdom since the 1920s. It took a serious hit recently, though, when observers concluded that as many as half the stars in the universe might actually hover outside galaxies, flung off into the intergalactic void as collateral casualties when smaller galaxies merge to become large ones. But while that discovery was startling, a new prediction posted online takes the finding to a whole new level. A significant number of stars, say Avi Loeb and James Guillochon, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, should not just be floating through intergalactic space: they should be screaming across the cosmos at absurdly high speeds. We calculate that there should be more than a trillion stars in the observable universe moving at velocities of more than a tenth the speed of light, says Loeb. Thats about 67 million m.p.h. (108 million k/h). And about ten million of those stars, he says, are moving at least five times faster than that. High-velocity stars are not without precedent. Astronomers already knew of a handful of stars in the Milky Way that are moving at a million m.p.h (1.6 million k/h) or so, and which should eventually leave our galaxy. But this new class of speedstersif theyre confirmedwould make those so-called hypervelocity stars look like garbage trucks lumbering along in the cosmic slow lane. Theres reason to hope that the findings are validated, beyond the mere wow factor of the work. Astronomers currently study the origin and development of the universe by trapping particles in telescopes and detectorsphotons of light, mostly, and also, more recently, the ghostly particles called neutrinos, which bear information about the stars, galaxies and quasars in which they originated. Superfast stars would be another sort of particles, albeit huge, shining ones, which could tell astronomers plenty about the conditions theyve encountered since they escaped their galactic homes. They give us the opportunity to do cosmology in an entirely new way, he says, with massive objects moving at near lightspeed across the universe. How they got moving so fast is the core of Loebs and Guillochons idea. Most galaxies harbor huge black holes in their cores, and when two galaxies merge to form one, those black holes end up circling each other in a tight do-si-do. Eventually, they too will merge into a single object, but as they approach each other, the complex gravitational interplay between them and the stars that orbit them exerts incredible forceand impart incredible speed. (Black hole interactions also give rise to hypervelocity stars within the Milky Way, but here theres just a single black hole, and thus a lot less energy available.)

NBC NEWS: 'I'm an Atheist': Stephen Hawking on God and Space Travel
BY ALAN BOYLE

rld-famous theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking says flat-out that he doesn't believe in God, but he does believe that space travel offers the best hope for our species' immortality. Those pronouncements came during the buildup to this week's Starmus Festival at Tenerife in the Canary Islands, where Hawking and other scientific luminaries have gathered for rounds of talks, tours and elbow-rubbing. The Spanish newspaper El Mundo engineered an exclusive interview with Hawking, and headlined its report with his views on the origins of the universe.

Matema (Mathemagic)
Arthur Benjamin

, , , , ,

. , - . , ; . : , , , .

Resonance Conversion as a Catalyser of NuclearReactions
KARPESHIN Feodor, ZHANG Jingbo, and ZHANG Weining

Dear Professor Magarshak, Please, find a paper on Resonance Conversion as a Catalyser of Nuclear Reactions, Au.: KARPESHIN Feodor, ZHANG Jingbo, and ZHANG Weining, on the website http://arxiv.org/pdf/1408.4174v1.pdf I propose it to put into the new journal, New Concepts in Science. Looking forward to hear from you soon! Best regards Fiodor Karpeshiin

Rethinking the origins of the universe
site of the University of North Caroline By Thania Benios, Office of Communications and Public Affairs

Black holes have long captured the public imagination and been the subject of popular culture, from Star Trek to Hollywood. They are the ultimate unknown the blackest and most dense objects in the universe that do not even let light escape. And as if they werent bizarre enough to begin with, now add this to the mix: they dont exist. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The work not only forces scientists to reimagine the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Im still not over the shock, said Mersini-Houghton. Weve been studying this problem for a more than 50 years and this solution gives us a lot to think about. For decades, black holes were thought to form when a massive star collapses under its own gravity to a single point in space imagine the Earth being squished into a ball the size of a peanut called a singularity. So the story went, an invisible membrane known as the event horizon surrounds the singularity and crossing this horizon means that you could never cross back. Its the point where a black holes gravitational pull is so strong that nothing can escape it. The reason black holes are so bizarre is that it pits two fundamental theories of the universe against each other. Einsteins theory of gravity predicts the formation of black holes but a fundamental law of quantum theory states that no information from the universe can ever disappear. Efforts to combine these two theories lead to mathematical nonsense, and became known as the information loss paradox. In 1974, Stephen Hawking used quantum mechanics to show that black holes emit radiation. Since then, scientists have detected fingerprints in the cosmos that are consistent with this radiation, identifying an ever-increasing list of the universes black holes. But now Mersini-Houghton describes an entirely new scenario. She and Hawking both agree that as a star collapses under its own gravity, it produces Hawking radiation. However, in her new work, Mersini-Houghton shows that by giving off this radiation, the star also sheds mass. So much so that as it shrinks it no longer has the density to become a black hole.

DISCOVER MAGAZINE: Earths Water Is Older Than the Sun
By Carl Engelking

The sun, at 4.6 billion years old, predates all the other bodies in our solar system. But it turns out that much of the water we swim in and drink here on Earth is even older. A new model of the chemistry of the early solar system finds that up to half the water now on Earth was inherited from an abundant supply of interstellar ice as our sun formed. That means our solar systems moisture wasnt the result of local conditions in the proto-planetary disk, but rather a regular feature of planetary formation raising hopes that life could indeed exist elsewhere in the universe.

  2 3 4 5